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Model Training: Steel Rolling Process Modeling and Mill Development

View Course Modules Outline
 

Introduction

This five-day, instructor-led course is designed to improve mill related engineers the basic skills on rolling mill parameters calculation for mill design, development and operation. The course covers metal deformation in the roll gap, force, torque and power requirements, and temperature and microstructure evolution during rolling and controlled cooling. Fundamentals on rolling mill design and development are introduced. Primary focus is on the rolling process modeling and application of the models in the design and development. Students will perform various Lab projects on mill parameters calculation, and run over a dozen of rolling mill design and development programs hosted in www.metalpass.com, in order to enhance their understanding on mill design fundamentals, and to improve their design and development skills.

The training consists of twenty modules. Each module has Lessons on fundamental topics, and a Lab for performing hands-on excises. The work on steel rolling process modeling and mill design requires large amount of hands-on calculation and data processing, so this type of Lab excises is necessary for high-quality training.

Audience

This course is designed for rolling mill design, development and operation engineers who have basic experiences on steel rolling and rolling mills, and want to enhance knowledge and skills on high quality mill design, development or operation.

At Course Completion

After completing this course, students will be able to:

• 

Better understand rolling process as an integration of mechanical, metallurgical and control engineering systems

• 

Use models to determine major rolling process parameters

• 

Understand roll pass design fundamentals and Use roll pass program to perform design and development

• 

Use advanced roll pass programs to design high-quality roll pass schedules and to improve existing ones

• 

Understand flow stress and mean flow stress, and perform basic calculation on flow stress and mean flow stress

• 

Manually calculate rolling force, torque and power, etc., and use software to calculate the force, torque and power, etc. for various groove sequences in various rolling conditions

• 

Know general methods for rolling process modeling and understand strengths and limitations for each method

• 

Understand that steel rolling is a dynamic metallurgical process, with both softening and hardening mechanisms, and rolled steel properties are affected by many process parameters

• 

Have knowledge on numerical models (FEM, FDM) and use programs to perform some numerical simulations

• 

Know the temperature profile along the rolling production line and over the stock cross-section

• 

Simulate microstructure evolution during rolling by applying internet-based simulation program

• 

Understand the significance, function and development progress of Level 2 system; know that quality of the control system is one of the key indicators for the equipment technology level

• 

Know Level 2 Model functions, architecture and future development

Prerequisites

Before attending this course, students are expected to have basic knowledge and work experience of the rolling mills (flat, bar/rod, section, etc.), basic college training on mechanical engineering, material engineering or industry automation.

Students who completed basic college training in engineering but not in the above-mentioned fields may satisfy the prerequisites for this course by studying related technical articles such as those listed in www.metalpass.com/metallmaterials, www.metalpass.com/metalworking and www.metalpass.com/itautomation.

Student Materials

For the high quality of the training, a complete student study manual of about 150 pages is created in accompany of the training slides and Lab excises.

Equipment

In order for students to complete Lab excises with the internet-based rolling mill programs, each student is required to have a laptop computer (or a desktop computer pre-installed in the training room). The computers must have internet access. The computers should have a calculation program such as MS Excel.

A projector for computer is required in the training room for the instructor to do the slide show.


Course Outline


Module 1: Rolling Process Basic Parameters and Concepts

This module introduces basic parameters of the rolling process, such as draft (height reduction), cross-sectional reduction, strain, strain rate, temperature, spread, elongation, neutral angle, forward slip, friction, interstand tension, force, forming resistance, torque, power, and so on.

The module focuses on the mechanical and rolling process issues in the steel rolling.

Lessons

•  Introduction of Rolling Process (Comparison w/ Other Forming Processes, Issues, Hot, Cold, etc.)
• 

Basic Geometry (Draft, Cross-sectional Reduction, Strain, Spread, Elongation, Bite angle, Contact Area, etc.)

• 

Basic Rolling Process (Strain Rate, Temperature, Forward Slip, Friction, Interstand Tension, Formability, etc.)

• 

Force, Torque and Power (Forming Resistance, Force, Torque, Power, etc.)

• 

And so on

There is no Lab for this module

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Understand basic geometrical and process related parameters used in the rolling

• 

Understand key metal flow phenomena and deformation issues involved in the primary parameters

• 

Know basics on mill force, torque and power requirement which are critical to the rolling mill design


Module 2: Rolling Process Parameter Influences and Prediction Models

This module provides quantitative description of each rolling process parameters and their influence factors. Major parameters, such as friction, are with rolling process models to predict them.

Lessons

• 

Basic Geometric Models (Strain, Spread, Elongation, Bite angle, Contact Area, etc.)

•  Basic Rolling Process (Strain Rate, Temperature, Forward Slip, Friction, Interstand Tension, Formability, etc.)
•  Force, Torque and Power  (Forming Resistance, Force, Torque, Power, etc.)
• 

Some Advanced Topics, Parameters and Models (if time allows)

Lab 2: Rolling Process Parameter Calculation

•  Predict friction based on rolling temperature and speed, etc.
•  Calculate bite angle, maximum bite angle
• 

Determinate strain rate, etc.

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Quantitatively describe the rolling process

• 

Apply basic models to predict major parameters


Module 3: Rolling Mills for Production of Strip/Plate, Bar/Rod, and Pipes and Sections

This module briefly introduces various rolling processes and equipment types, with technical problems, production technologies and recent development trends covered. The equipment includes both mechanical equipment and automation systems. For mill equipment engineers, this module covers mill types, optimization and modernization topics; for mill operation engineers, this module may include some shape control issues (for gauge, width and profile/flatness, etc.).

Lessons

• 

Hot Rolling of Strip and Plate; CSP/ISP and related Technologies

• 

Hot Rolling of Bar, Wire Rod and Other Simple Shapes; Finishing Blocks (NTM and RSM, etc.)

•  Hot Rolling of Sections (Angle, I-Beam and U-Section, etc.)
•  Production of Seamless Pipes and Welding Pipes
•  Cold Rolling of Steels
• 

Others

Lab 3: There is no Lab in this module

• 

If time allows, certain topics could be selected for discussion.

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Identify the differences in various rolling processes and various rolling mill equipment (machinery and control system) types

• 

Understand rolling process development progress and future trends

• 

Understand major technologies in each of the rolling processes


Module 4: Flow Stress and Its Modeling

This module introduces flow stress and its application in mill force and power calculation. Flow stress models for various application situations will be discussed. Mean flow stress, which is directly used in the roll separating force prediction, will be introduced. Advanced topics such as metallurgical interaction are also covered.

Lessons

• 

Introduction to Flow Stress

• 

Flow Stress Models for Various Application Situations

• 

Calculation of Flow Stress and Mean Flow Stress

• 

Flow Stress Advanced Topics - Metallurgical Interaction

Lab 4: Calculation of Flow Stress and Mean Flow Stress

• 

Calculate flow stress in various strain, strain rate and temperature, by applying a flow stress model

• 

Calculate mean flow stress based on a given rolling condition

• 

Calculate flow stress for high speed rolling process

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Understand the nature of the flow stress as metal property of deformation resistance.

• 

Calculate flow stress based on flow stress model

• 

Calculate mean flow stress in the case of rolling

•  Understand and calculate flow stress in the case of the high-speed rolling, the common case for wire rod rolling
• 

Understand metallurgical effects on the flow stress


Module 5: Mill Force, Torque and Power Calculation Fundamentals

This module explains how to calculate roll separating force, rolling torque and mill power. For force calculation, models for the Projective Contact Area and for the Shape Factor, both in various groove sequences, are discussed. Experimentally established Lever Arm Ratio for torque calculation is introduced. Mill strength calculation and motor power determination, etc., are also covered.

Lessons

• 

Roll Separating Force Calculation

•  Projective Contact Area and Its Modeling
•  Shape Factor (Q-Factor) and Its Modeling
•  Torque Calculation, Lever Arm Ratio Modeling
• 

Rolling Power, Mill Power, Motor Power, etc.

Lab 5: Mill Force, Torque and Power Calculation

• 

Calculate Mean Flow Stress, Projective Contact Area, Shape Factor and Roll Separating Force

• 

Calculate Mill Torque and Power Requirements

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Understand rolling mill force and power calculation and modeling related issues

• 

Calculate mill force, torque and power for a given rolling process


Module 6: Temperature Calculation During Rolling and Controlled Cooling

This module explains energy balance with heat generation and heat losses during rolling and cooling, and on this basis, the temperature prediction. Heat transfer coefficients during rolling, controlled water cooling and controlled air cooling, etc. are discussed.

Lessons

• 

Energy Balance with Heat Generation and Heat Losses during Rolling

• Heat Transfer Coefficients during Rolling, Controlled Water Cooling and Controlled Air Cooling
• Methods for Temperature Calculation During Rolling and Controlled Cooling
• 

Others

Lab 6: Temperature Calculation During Rolling and Controlled Cooling

• 

Temperature Calculation During Rolling

• 

Temperature Calculation During Water-Box Cooling

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Understand energy balance and temperature process during rolling and controlled cooling

• 

Calculate temperature for the rolling and controlled cooling processes

• 

Understand major temperature calculation methods available (empirical, numerical)


Module 7: Metallurgical Fundamentals of Steel Rolling

This module explains metallurgical phenomena and practices as applied to the steel rolling process. Metallurgical characteristics such as phases, grains, grain size, microstructure transformation, and their effects on the steel properties are covered. Macroscopic and microscopic natures of plasticity are briefly introduced. On the basis, microstructure evolution during rolling and controlled cooling, and thermoechanical rolling and physical metallurgy, etc. are discussed.

Lessons

• 

Metallurgical Characteristics and their Effects on Steel Properties

• 

Macroscopic and Microscopic Natures of Plasticity

• 

Microstructural Evolution during Rolling and Controlled Cooling

• 

Thermal Mechanical Rolling and Physical Metallurgy

• 

Modeling of Metallurgical Processes during Rolling

Lab 7: There is no Lab in this module

• 

Certain Topics May Be Selected for Discussion (If Time Allows)

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Know basic metallurgical phenomena such as phase transformation and microstructure evolution

• 

Better understand steel rolling as both mechanical and metallurgical processes

• 

Gain better understanding on those rolling practices which improve rolled steel properties

• 

Gain basic knowledge on modeling of metallurgical processes during rolling

• 

Consider metallurgical factors in rolling mill design/operation


Module 8: Roll Pass Design Fundamentals

This module covers roll pass design fundamentals in rolling simple shapes (round, square, flat, etc.) and complicated sections (angle, I-beam, Rail and U-Sections, etc.). Related topics are such as spread determination, pass sequence (RD-OV, SQ-DI and BX-BX, etc.), rolling trains (roughing, intermediate and finishing trains, etc.) are discussed.

Lessons

• 

Purpose of Roll Pass Design

•  Issues in the Roll Pass Design (Fill Ratio, Aspect Ratio, Bite Angle, Spread, Formability, etc.)
•  Roll Layout and Pass sequences (Selection, Reduction Capacity; RD-OV, SQ-DI, SQ-OV, BX-BX, etc.)
•  Roughing, Intermediate and Finishing Trains; Continuous Mill, High-Speed Mill, etc.
• 

Other topics

Lab 8: Groove Selection and Roll Pass Design

• 

Selecting Groove Shapes for various Rolling Processes; Matching Groove Sequences

• 

Performing a Diamond-Square Roll Pass Design with Simplified Spread Estimation

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Understand fundamentals on roll pass design (purpose, issues, etc.)

• 

Understand features in different rolling trains and different groove sequences

• 

Know basic roll pass design methods and procedures


Module 9: Spread and Forward Slip Models

This module introduces major modeling procedures to predict spread and forward slip. Spread and forward slip are among the most significant phenomena, and are among the most difficult parameters to predict in rolling process design and development.

Lessons

• 

Influence Factors on Spread

• 

Spread Models

•  Influence Factors on Forward Slip
•  Forward Slip Models
• 

Tension and Tension Correction on Spread and Forward Slip

Lab 9: Spread and Forward Slip Prediction

• 

Predicting Spread based on Existing Rolling Process Parameters

•  Predicting Forward Slip based on Existing Rolling Process Parameters
• 

Applying Tension Correction on Spread and Forward Slip

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Understand major influences on spread and forward slip

• 

Perform basic prediction of the spread and forward slip

• 

Understand and apply tension effects on spread and forward slip


Module 10: Methods for Rolling Process Modeling

This module briefly introduces major methods on rolling process modeling. Empirical models require large number of testing results to justify their quality. Analytical methods (Slab Method, Slip-Line Method, Upper/Lower Boundary Method, etc.) used to be important additions to the empirical models. With the advancement of computing power, numerical solutions such as finite-element method and finite-differential method are popular today. Online model, based on industrial control theory and feedback, is among the fastest and also most accurate models. In the final lesson, the focus is on the introduction of finite-element method, especially its application in the rolling process parameters determination.

Lessons

• 

Empirical Method

• 

Analytical Method (Slab Method, Slip-Line Method, Upper/Lower Boundary Method, etc.)

•  Numerical Method (Finite-Element Method, Finite-Differential Method)
•  Self-Improvement Method (Or Online Method, e.g. Adaptive Learning, Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic)
• 

Application of Finite-Element Method in Steel Rolling

Lab 10: Preparation for an FEM Simulation of Steel Rolling (Instructor Led)

• 

Material Data (Flow Stress, Physical, Mechanical, Thermal, etc.)

•  Boundary Conditions (Friction Coefficient, Heat Transfer Coefficient)
• 

Grid Generation

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Have general knowledge of various methods for steel rolling process modeling, and strength and limitation of each method

• 

Understand the possible application of FEM in steel rolling, and basic knowledge on how to perform FEM simulation for rolling process


Module 11: Introduction to Online Model - Level 2 System

Today the quality of control system is one of the key indicators for the equipment technology level. Level 2 system is the production execution system, which is one of the most critical systems in the rolling mill operation. While flat rolling uses Level 2 to perform instant draft schedule generation, other rolling process mainly stay in the stage that Level 2 is used for data collection and data communication.

Lessons

• 

Overview of Level 2 System

• 

Data Collection and Data Management

•  Data Populating and Data Storage
•  Level 2 Systems for EAF, LMF, Caster and Rolling Mill
• 

Next-Generation Level 2 System

Lab 11: Discussion on the Functions of Level 2 System (Instructor Led)

• 

Level 2 System for Flat Rolling

• 

Level 2 System for Rod, Bar and Section Rolling

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Understand the significance of Level 2 System

• 

Understand the function of Level 2 System

• 

Understand the development progress of Level 2 System


Module 12: Introduction to Online Model - Level 2 Model

This module explains Level 2 Model, a collection of online models used in the Level 2 system. Force prediction is improved through adaptive learning or other advanced learning processes (e.g. Neural Network). For high accuracy, temperature is calculated based on the force prediction. Various roll deformations are determined. Based on principles of equal deformation targets, metallurgical temperature targets and maximum productivity targets, etc., the draft schedule is created pass by pass by the Level 2 model. This module also cover some topics such as model quality and its significance, and next generation Level 2 models, etc.

Lessons

• 

Online Model Force Prediction - Adaptive Learning

• 

Online Model Force Prediction - Neural Network Learning

• 

Online Model Temperature Prediction

• 

Draft Scheduling and Production Execution

•  Significance of Level 2 Model Quality
• 

Next-Generation Level 2 Model (Rolling, Reheating and Controlled Cooling)

Lab 12: Discussion on Level 2 Model Quality (Instructor Led)

• 

Level 2 System for Flat Rolling

• 

Level 2 System for Shape Rolling

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Understand Level 2 Model functions and significance

• 

Understand Level 2 Model design and general architecture

• 

Understand Level 2 Model current weaknesses and future potential


Module 13: Roll Pass Design with AutoForm Series (I)

This module guides students to perform roll pass design by applying internet roll pass programs RD-OV-RD and SQ-DI-SQ.

Lessons

• 

Features, Internal Logics and Application Considerations

• 

Input and Output Parameters of Each Roll Pass Design Programs

• 

Roll Pass Design Demo by Running the Programs

Lab 13: Roll Pass Design with AutoForm Series (I)

• 

Roll Pass Design for Round-Oval Pass Sequence by Running AutoForm Program RD-OV-RD

• 

Roll Pass Design for Square-Diamond Sequence by Running AutoForm Program SQ-DI-SQ.

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Understand basics on roll pass design and roll pass design programs

• 

Gain basic skills to perform roll pass design with easy-to-use roll pass programs


Module 14: Roll Pass Design with AutoForm Series (II)

This module guides students to perform roughing train roll pass design by applying internet roll pass programs Box-Square-Oval-Round (4-pass train to roll from square to round), Box-Oval-Round (3-pass train to roll from square to round) and Box-Box (2 passes).

Lessons

• 

Features, Internal Logics and Application Considerations, Input and Output Parameters

• 

Box-Square-Oval-Round (4-pass train to roll from square to round)

• 

Box-Oval-Round (3-pass train to roll from square to round)

• 

Box-Box (2 box passes)

• 

Others

Lab 14: Roll Pass Design with AutoForm Series (II)

• 

Box-Square-Oval-Round (4-pass train to roll from square to round)

• 

Box-Oval-Round (3-pass train to roll from square to round)

• 

Box-Box (2 Passes, Two Box passes)

• 

Other Passes, if Time Allows

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Have basic skills to perform roughing train (or break-down mill) pass design with easy-to-use roll pass design programs

• 

Further understand the issues and deformation processes involved in the roughing train or breakdown mills


Module 15:  Roll Pass Design with FreeForm Series (I)

This module guides students to perform high-quality, multiple-pass roll pass design for Round-Oval pass sequence, by applying a high-quality roll pass design software. Students are also welcome to analyze existing pass schedules to find out potential improvement opportunities.

Lessons

• 

Metal Deformation Pattern in the Continuous Mill and in Tied Wire Block (NTM)

• 

High-Quality Roll Pass Design with Real-World Metal Deformation Pattern

• 

Features, Internal Logics and Application Considerations

• 

Input and Output Parameters of Each Roll Pass Design Programs

• 

Roll Pass Design Demo by Running the Program Pass By Pass

Lab 15:  Roll Pass Design with FreeForm Series RD-OV

• 

Perform Multiple Pass Roll Pass Design for Round-Oval Pass Sequence (with or without considering tension effects on metal deformation)

• 

Save A Designed Pass Sequences to a File, and Reload the Saved Data (for further design or for modification in order to create a new pass sequence)

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Design high-quality pass sequence schedules by fully considering the real deformation pattern of the metal during rolling

• 

Modify existing pass schedule to create a new one, or to analyze a pass schedule to find out potential weaknesses


Module 16: Roll Pass Design with FreeForm Series (II)

This module further improve students' roll pass design skills by continued design of high-quality, multiple-pass schedule, for Square-Diamond (SQ-DI) pass sequence. The work will be done by applying a high-quality roll pass design software FreeForm Series Square-Diamond. Students are also welcome to analyze existing pass schedules to find out potential improvement opportunities.

Lessons

• 

Features, Internal Logics and Application Considerations

• 

Input and Output Parameters of Each Roll Pass Design Programs

• 

Roll Pass Design Demo by Running the Programs

Lab 16: Roll Pass Design with FreeForm Series SQ-DI

• 

Perform Multiple Pass Roll Pass Design for Round-Oval Pass Sequence (with or without considering tension effects on metal deformation)

• 

Save A Designed Pass Sequences to a File, and Reload the Saved Data (for further design or for modification in order to create a new pass sequence)

• 

Others, If Time Allows

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Design high-quality pass sequence schedules by fully considering the real deformation pattern of the metal during rolling

• 

Deeply understand metal deformation pattern in continuous mills or tied rolling block

• 

Modify existing pass schedule to create a new one, or to analyze a pass schedule to find out potential weaknesses


Module 17: Calculation of Force, Torque and Power during Rolling

This module guides students to perform rolling mill force, torque and power calculation, for various pass sequences, by applying a suite of internet-based mill programs.

Lessons

• 

Features, Internal Logics and Application Considerations of the Programs

• 

Input and Output Parameters of Each Programs, and Involved Technical Issues

• 

Calculation Demo for Various Grades and Various Pass Sequences, etc.

Lab 17: Calculation of Force, Torque and Power during Rolling

• 

Work on Three of the Nine Pass Sequence Cases in the Force/Torque/Power Calculation (different students may work on different pass sequences)

• 

Others If Time Allows

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Further improve the understanding in the rolling mill force, torque and power calculation

• 

Have skills to calculate rolling mill force, torque and power

• 

And so on


Module 18: Temperature Prediction During Rolling and Controlled Cooling

This module guides students to perform numerical simulation of the temperature profile over the stock cross-section along the rolling production line (including the controlled cooling line), using internet-based Finite-Differential Method (FDM) program. Students will gain deep understanding on the temperature profiles during rolling and controlled cooling.

Lessons

• 

Features, Internal Logics and Application Considerations

• 

Input and Output Parameters of the Programs

• 

Finite-Differential Method in Prediction of Temperature during Rolling and Controlled Cooling

• 

Application of FDM Program for Temperature Prediction

Lab 18: Use of Web-based FDM Program  for Temperature Prediction during Rolling and Controlled Cooling

• 

Data Input Pass by Pass and Data Calculation

• 

Output Result and Analysis

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Understand temperature process from furnace dropout, air cooling, rolling, interpass cooling, water-box cooling and free and forced air cooling, and so on

• 

Understand temperature distribution over the cross-section from stock center to the surface

• 

Perform temperature calculation for temperature progress throughout the rolling and cooling processes, and in each time point, the temperature distribution over the stock cross-section

• 

Understand heat generation through deformation, and the heat transfer coefficients through heat transfers


Module 19: Microstructure Prediction with Web-based Program

This module first covers microstructure evolution during rolling, such as dynamic and static recrystallization and grain growth, on the basis of the metallurgical fundamentals discussed in module 7. Then, it particularly guides the students to perform microstructure simulation for the steel rolling process pass by pass. Students are asked to do analysis of the output data in order to deeply understand the microstructural processes.

Lessons

• 

Microstructure Evolution during Rolling and Interpass Cooling

• 

Microstructure Models

• 

Microstructure Prediction Program Development

• 

Microstructure Prediction Program Application

Lab 19: Microstructure Prediction with Web-based Microstructure Simulation Program

• 

Microstructure Evolution during Rolling and Interpass Cooling

• 

Output Results Analysis in Order to Understand the Evolution Process

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Understand microstructure evolution during rolling process pass by pass

• 

Perform microstructure simulation by applying easy-to-use simulation software available through internet

• 

And so on


Module 20: Review

This module reinforces the concepts, models and calculation methods that the students have learned throughout the course. The time may also be used for covering special topics requested by students, or for students to perform a small design project.

Lessons

• 

Review of Material Covered

• 

Discuss on the requested topics

Lab 20: Review

• 

A Simplified Design Project (Optional)

After completing this module, students will be able to:

• 

Do the rolling process related mill design or mill improvement

• 

Calculate rolling process parameters with empirical, numerical and online methods

• 

Leave the classroom with smile and confidence


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