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Metallurgical Models for Controlled Cooling Level 2

Wide range of the metallurgical models can be applied into the various Level 2 systems, not only the rolling mill Level 2, but also the controlled cooling Level 2.

Controlled Cooling Metallurgical Models for Level 2

Application of the metallurgical models in the post-rolling cooling Level 2 helps to find the optimal cooling schedule for a given finish size and given steel grade. Accelerated water-cooling or controlled air-cooling may be used to control the cooling speed in order to achieve optimal microstructure and thus the finish properties. There are extensive studies in this area. Several models are discussed here as example.

  • Phase transformation model. Describes the progress of various transformation reactions against time during cooling. The kinetic equation x = 1 exp (-k tn), together with various extensions or modifications of it, is known to hold for various time-dependent nucleation and growth reactions at a constant temperature, where x is the fraction formed, t is time and k and n are constants. These constants should be determined for each grade and each phase, etc. When there is sufficient number of measurement available, the constants can be determined through system learning to improve prediction accuracy. Further, it can be integrated into the mechanical test laboratory that measures rolled steel properties.

  • Grain size model at the start of the controlled cooling. Predicts the initial grain size (grain diameter) of the steel for controlled cooling. If the metallurgical model is available for the rolling mill Level 2, the grain size at the entry of the controlled cooling can be easily available; otherwise an empirical model for this grain size could be created based on the major rolling process parameters.

  • Precipitation model. Describe the precipitation process for some grades such as HSLA steels that contain small amount of carbide (or nitride) forming elements (e.g. niobium). For those grades, the improvement of microstructure and mechanical properties is achieved mainly by the suppressed recrystallization of austenite, which is considered to be due to the precipitation of carbonitrides, especially of niobium carbide.

Controlled Cooling Level 2 Model Architecture

The newly developed Level 2 model may include following modules

  • Thermal model including cooling-process affected heat transfer coefficient models, and mechanical and metallurgical models to determine various parameters, with also numerical analysis (FDM or FEM) components.

  • Related rolling process models and rolling process data, with connection with rolling mill Level 2 system, etc.

  • Expert system, which consists of logics, data and influence factors on the mechanical, thermal and metallurgical parameters as well as past reheating experiences.

  • Intelligent learning techniques based on the above-mentioned process models, in which the neural network provides the correcting factors for the model coefficients, and fuzzy logic rules and expert system provide guidelines (upper and lower boundaries, etc.) for the learning.

After evaluation of nearly 10 site testing reports, Metal Pass has developed accurate models on heat transfer coefficients during controlled water cooling and controlled air cooling. The models can greatly increase prediction accuracy for the controlled cooling system.

We also have developed a finite differential method (FDM) model which has great advantage over the traditional slab element method. See Online Demo.

Related Resources


Metal Pass Resources on Level 2 Model Improvement

Metal Pass Work List on Level 2 and Mill Modeling

Technical papers published in the February and March of 2008. Those publications are primarily on Level 2, Level 2 model and process automation.

List of available process models for steel mill developed by Metal Pass (Dr. Benjamin Li)

List of computer classes completed by Dr. Benjamin Li

Metal Pass IT & Software Technology Resources

See the profile for the primary consultant Dr. Benjamin Li. You may also view our company and personnel profiles. Please contact us via email admin@metalpass.com or by phone (001) 503 516 9625 for top quality consulting services.

Metal Pass has dozens of research reports and some software applications available at no charge for the Metal Pass Consulting clients (under approval by Dr. Benjamin Li).


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